ⓘ បុណ្យសែនព្រះខែ

                                     

ⓘ បុណ្យសែនព្រះខែ

បុណ្យសែនព្រះខែជាពិធីបុណ្យមួយ នៅពាក់កណ្តាលសរទរដូវ, ត្រូវបានគេស្គាល់ថាជាបុណ្យសែនព្រះខែ ឬ ចុងឈីវជៀ។ វាជាពិធីបុណ្យ សំរាប់អបអររដូវប្រមូលផលពេញនិយមមួយ ដែលត្រូវបានប្រារព្ធឡើងដោយជនជាតិ ចិន, តៃវ៉ាន់, និងប្រជាជនវៀតណាម. ក្នុងរយៈពេលជាង 3.000 ឆ្នាំមុន ព្រះច័ន្ទ ត្រូវបានចាត់ទុកជាទី សក្ការៈនៃរាជវង្ស ថាង, ពិធីបុណ្យនេះ ត្រូវបានឱ្យឈ្មោះថា ចុងឈីវជៀ នៅក្នុងរាជកាលនៃរាជវង្ស ចូវ.នៅម៉ាលេស៊ី សឹង្ហបុរី និង ហ្វីលីពីន គេហៅវាថា ពិធីបុណ្យគោម ឬ ពិធីបុណ្យសែននំព្រះខែ ។ ពិធីនេះគេប្រារព្ធឡើងនៅថ្ងៃទី ១៥ ក្នុងខែទី ៨​របស់ចិន ហើយត្រូវនឹងខែ កញ្ញា ឬ តុលានៃប្រក្រតិទិនសូរិយាគតិ ។ វាក៏ជាថ្ងៃដែលត្រូវនឹងពាក់កណ្តាលសរទរដូវនៃប្រក្រតិទិនសូរិយាគតិ ហើយនៅពេលនោះព្រះច័ន្ទក៏ពេញបូណ៌មីដែរ ។ ម្ហូបប្រពៃណីនៃពិធីនេះគឺ នំលោកខែ ។

បុណ្យសែនព្រះខែជាពិធីបុណ្យសំខាន់មួយក្នុងប្រក្រតិទិនរបស់ចិន។​ តាមប្រពៃណី ញាតិមិត្តនិង មិត្តភ័ក្តិមកជួមជុំគ្នានៅថ្ងៃនេះ ដើម្បីមើលព្រះខែពេញបូណ៌មី និង ញុំានំលោកខែ ។ ក្នុងពិធីបុណ្យនេះ ក៏មានទំនៀមទម្លាប់ខ្លះៗដែរ ដូចជា៖

  • Fire Dragon Dances
  • Collecting dandelion leaves and distributing them evenly among family members
  • អុជធុបដើម្បីគោរពដល់ទេវតា ពិសេស ឆាងអឺ
  • កាន់គោម ដុតគោម និង​បង្ហោះគោម
                                     

1. ប្រវត្តិនៃបុណ្យសែនព្រះខែ

Houyi and Change Main articles: Houyi and Change Celebration of the Mid-Autumn Festival is strongly associated with the legend of Houyi and Change, the Moon Goddess of Immortality. Tradition places these two figures from Chinese mythology at around 2200 BCE, during the reign of the legendary Emperor Yao, shortly after that of Huangdi. Unlike many lunar deities in other cultures who personify the moon, Change simply lives on the moon but is not the moon herself. There are many variants and adaptations of the legend of Change that frequently contradict each other. However, most versions of the legend involve some variation of the following elements: Houyi, the Archer, an emperor, either benevolent or malevolent, and an elixir of life. One version of the legend states that Houyi was an immortal and Change was a beautiful young girl, working in the palace of the Jade Emperor the Emperor of Heaven, 玉帝 pinyin:Yùdì as an attendant to the Queen Mother of the West the Jade Emperors wife. Houyi aroused the jealousy of the other immortals, who then slandered him before the Jade Emperor. Houyi and his wife, Change, were subsequently banished from heaven. They were forced to live on Earth. Houyi had to hunt to survive and became a skilled and famous archer. At that time, there were ten suns, in the form of three-legged birds, residing in a mulberry tree in the eastern sea. Each day one of the sun birds would have to travel around the world on a carriage, driven by Xihe, the mother of the suns. One day, all ten of the suns circled together, causing the Earth to burn. Emperor Yao, the Emperor of China, commanded Houyi to use his archery skill to shoot down all but one of the suns. Upon completion of his task, the Emperor rewarded Houyi with a pill that granted eternal life. Emperor Yao advised Houyi not to swallow the pill immediately but instead to prepare himself by praying and fasting for a year before taking it. On the night of the Moon Festival, the rebels successfully attacked and overthrew the government. What followed was the establishment of the Ming Dynasty 1368–1644, under Zhu. Henceforth, the Mid-Autumn Festival was celebrated with moon cakes on a national level.

                                     

2. Taiwan version

Due to historical cultural ties with China, legends of the holiday in Taiwan share major feature of the Chinese version. Since middle of 1980’s, Taiwanese starts the trend of barbecue with friends and family at Mid-Autumn Festival. This trend trace from different statements, some said that it started because of the boost of commercial company, others said that it is because people usually get hungry when they are watching the moon, so barbecue outdoor become widespread among people. However, the take off of Taiwan economy and the influence of western life style was also a reason which makes people change their traditional custom. Mooncakes are typically round but smaller, with less elaborate fillings. More recently, some versions of the cake from Hong Kong seem to be gaining popularity.

                                     

3. Vietnamese version

The Mid-Autumn festival is named "Tết Trung Thu" in Vietnamese. The Vietnamese version of the holiday recounts the legend of Cuội, whose wife accidentally urinated on a sacred banyan tree, taking him with it to the Moon. Every year, on the mid-autumn festival, children light lanterns and participate in a procession to show Cuội the way to Earth. One important event before and during Vietnamese Mid-Autumn Festival are lion dances. The dances are performed by both non-professional children group and trained professional groups. Lion dance groups perform on the streets go to houses asking for permission to perform for them. If accepted by the host, "the lion" will come in and start dancing as a wish of luck and fortune and the host gives back lucky money to show thankfulness.

                                     

4. Dates

The Mid-Autumn Festival is held on the 15th day of the eighth month in the Chinese calendar, which is in September or early October in the Gregorian calendar. In 2010 the Mid-Autumn Festival fell on September 22. It will occur on these days in coming years:

  • 2011: September 12
  • 2013: September 19
  • 2018: September 24
  • 2012: September 30
  • 2019: September 13
  • 2020: October 1
  • 2017: October 4
  • 2014: September 8
  • 2016: September 15
  • 2015: September 27